The Spectropop Group Archives presented by Friends of Spectropop

[Prev by Date] [Next by Date] [Index] [Search]

Spectropop - Digest Number 241


______________                                            ______________
______________                                            ______________
______________        S  P  E  C  T  R  O  P  O  P        ______________
______________                                            ______________
                         Stereo has Come of Age

There are 10 messages in this issue of Spectropop.

Topics in this Digest Number 241:

      1. REPARATA & the DELRONS
           From: mick patrick 
           From: mick patrick 
      3. Life's A Beach
           From: "Martin Roberts" 
      4. Thanks John
           From: "Martin Roberts" 
      5. Castro
           From: Doc Rock
      6. Important NARAS message from Mike Melvoin
           From: Carol Kaye 
      7. Re: Studio Musicians
           From: Carol Kaye
      8. MacAuley & MacLeod Release
           From: Steveronic 
      9. Ronnie Spector
           From: Robert Tirado 
           From: "Donny Hampton" 


Message: 1
   Date: Fri, 07 Sep 2001 21:24:43 +0100 (BST)
   From: mick patrick


Despite their lack of commercial success, Reparata and
her cohorts made some of the very best girl-group
tracks around. And Mary "Reparata" Aiese possessed one
of the definitive voices of the era. Gawd, her New Yawk
whine was second only to Mary of the Shangs! It's a big
mistake to judge this group without hearing their RCA
sides. "I'M NOBODY'S BABY NOW" is the best of the lot.
Here's what Ian Chapman had to say about the track in
Philately #4 back in 1984:

"Damn shame that Reparata & the Delrons are remembered
here in the UK mostly for "Captain Of Your Ship", a
damp piece of sea-sickness if ever there was. But if
you've ever investigated beyond and before that you'll
know that the group was capable of far better things.

"Although the Delrons' earlier stuff on World Artists
provided some truly wonderful moments, Reparata herself
has often said that she felt their best period,
material-wise, was their stint at RCA, which ran from
late-'65 to mid-'67. I, for one, tend to go along with
that, and I'd also venture to suggest that "I'm
Nobody's Baby Now" is in turn the jewel in the RCA
crown, and therefore, Reparata & the Delrons'
finest-ever 2 minutes and 40 seconds. Their Ne Plus

"The song comes from the pen of a solo Jeff Barry - and
if you thought it was always Ellie's touch that
provided the magic, you're in for a surprise. This is
pure Shangri-Las drama from start to finish,
beautifully blended with a Spectorish "Walking In The
Rain"-type backing; but most of all, it has that
essential ingredient that always goes to make up the
best girl-group slowies - bells. As with all the
group's records right from the word go, it's produced
by Steve and Bill Jerome, and arranged by John Abbott;
a team to be reckoned with (check out their Jubilee
sides with Renee St Clair and Marie Applebee). Reparata,
too, turns in one of her best performances, wringing
every drop from the forlorn, love-lost lyrics. She
half-sings, half-murmurs at first, as if in a state of
bewilderment at being abandoned, her voice gradually
building up to the crashing chorus, while the Delrons
supply true Ganser Twin back-ups. Then, to top it all,
she delivers one of the saddest, most beautiful
spoken-parts on vinyl, to the accompaniment of those
bells. She sounds almost suicidal! It's all too much
for flesh and blood to bear." (Ian Chapman, 1984)

Unfortunately, "I'm Nobody's Baby Now" is one of the
most difficult Delrons discs to find. I made do with a
cracked copy for many years.


--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Message: 2
   Date: Fri, 07 Sep 2001 22:05:41 +0100 (BST)
   From: mick patrick 


Jimmy Boy Crescitelli wrote

> ...I just got Westside's "Girls Will Be Girls" Volume I...
> what fun! A few standouts after repeated listenings:
> Toni Wine, "A Boy Like You." I think it's the CD's primo
> cut...what excellence! I love her tough-girl voice, and
> those backing singers are excellent... anyone know who;
> the Cookies?

Hi Jim, Would I lie to you? I told you this was one of
the best girl-group CDs around. To my ears, the heavenly
voice in the background on the Toni Wine track belongs
to none other than our Fairy Godmother, the lovely Ellie
Greenwich. Maybe someone out there could contact Toni or
Ellie for confirmation. Or you could just take my word
for it.

> Barry Sisters, "I Must Be Dreaming." The liner notes
> cracked me up-- "This pair of raven-haired borscht
> belt yentas... " (But too young to be yentas,nu?) This
> is a tuneful little number; very catchy, and their
> East Flatbush accents come through loud and clear.

This song was previously a B-side for Neil Sedaka. What
a drag those yentas made so few hip records. Have you
ever heard their album of songs from "Fiddler On The
Roof". I believe the expression is "Oy, Vey"! (With a
surname like mine I'm expected to be fluent in Yiddish
argot yet?). 

By the way, the chicks pictured on the cover of this CD
are United Artists girl-group THE REASONS.

You do all realise that I'm missing the new series of
Absolutely Fabulous, don't you.


--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Message: 3
   Date: Fri, 07 Sep 2001 23:35:00 +0100
   From: "Martin Roberts" 
Subject: Life's A Beach

Hello Keith!,

Can't let Keith's sneaky little entry into the World Of
Spectropop go unannounced. Like Mick, Ian & Phil he is one of
the original P.S.A.S. general all around know it all good guys!
A nicer bunch of fellows would be harder to meet, being
much younger they were all sort of Phil Spector 'Heros'
Keith did a lot of the designing for Philately, That Will
Never Happen Again and wrote the occasional piece plus the
most detailed Dusty Discography. Those of you who missed out
on these mags through age, madness, drugs or all three might
have seen Keith's work in Goldmines December 1980 'Wall Of
Sound' issue. Good to see Keith has beaten two of the above
afflictions and hope to see some interesting mails in the


--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Message: 4
   Date: Sat, 08 Sep 2001 00:26:00 +0100
   From: "Martin Roberts"
Subject: Thanks John

While still waiting release of The Tammys/Lou Christie CD
another one to get! Do you know the titles of the
Reparata/Delrons unreleased. Any good? Sure they're good. They're  great! A
tip! Beside the wonderful Delrons, Maire & Rene's look out
for Aldora Britton "Am I Ever Gonna See My Baby Again"
Columbia 44375 another fab Real Good/World United Girl Group
record. I'll start on boy Jerome stuff later!


--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Message: 5
   Date: Fri, 07 Sep 2001 16:02:40 -0400
   From: Doc Rock
Subject: Castro

> Bernadette Castro, "A Girl In Love Forgives." Has achieved 
> classic status. 

And the flip, "Get Rid of Him," is twice as good!


--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Message: 6
   Date: Thu, 06 Sep 2001 21:59:44 -0700
   From: Carol Kaye
Subject: Important NARAS message from Mike Melvoin

This message was originally forwarded to me by Mike
Melvoin, once pres. of NARAS for many many years, and a
good friend.  It points out the problems with today's
major record labels of which I tho't would be of some
interest here,

Carol Kaye

As the article points out, 04 out of the 5 major labels
are foreign-owned nowadays, read-on..........from Mike

For those who think that somehow NARAS is not relevant
in your life or that it's leadership doesn't speak for
you, I ask you to consider: who else speaks for you? And
how well?  Here is Recording Academy Pres./CEO Michael
Greene's testimony before the California legislature
yesterday. MM

Thank you for the opportunity to appear here today to
discuss with you the issues surrounding Labor Code 2855,
which impacts not only the members of the Recording
Academy, but virtually every recording artist. The
Recording Academy is a non-profit organization comprised
of more than 20,000 rank-and-file music industry
professionals, and on behalf of our members, we
respectfully request the repeal of subdivision (b) of
Labor Code 2855 which excludes recording artists from
protection under the seven-year statute. Our members
include, among others, artists, songwriters, producers,
musicians, and engineers representing such diverse music
genres as classical, bluegrass, jazz, polka, rock and
rap. While we are perhaps best known for our annual
awards ceremony and telecast, the GRAMMY Awards, the
Recording Academy also is a staunch advocate for the
creative music community on a number of fronts,
including music education, archiving and preservation,
cultural enrichment * which includes supporting
governmental funding for the arts * protection of
intellectual property rights and providing human
services for the members of the recording community.

We are here today to ensure that the California Senate
is informed so a conscientious and fair debate will
ensue. As you know, California Labor Code 2855 was
designed to protect all employees in the state from
being tied to personal services contracts for more than
seven years; in the case of recording artists, these are
typically onerous contracts.

The work of this committee and the state senate is to
vigorously protect the interests of all of our citizens,
including influential artists such as Don Henley,
Courtney Love, the Dixie Chicks, and Patti Austin, and
let's not forget the preponderance of music people who
are not household names. In 1987, the recording
industry-engineered exemption to the labor code
successfully consolidated contractual power in the hands
of five conglomerates, four of which are not controlled
by U.S. interests * the Japan-based Sony Music, the
Germany-based Bertelsmann, the United Kingdom-based EMI
Recorded Music, and the France-based Vivendi, which owns
Universal Music Group * all bleeding much of the power
away from many U.S. citizens, specifically, recording

It might shock you to know that this oligopoly controls
the vast majority of the music industry's market share. 
Now, more than ever, with the consolidation of not only
the record companies, but also the radio industry, the
concert business and virtually every other element that
affects the artist's life, this exemption is causing
undue hardship for the seemingly powerless recording
artist, while providing unnecessary protection to those
who need it least * the five multi-billion dollar music
corporations. Just a brief retrospective. In 1985, the
recording labels sought to extend the limit on personal
services contracts to 10 years for recording artists, a
crusade that rightfully failed. But in 1987, the
industry again lobbied state politicians, this time
winning an exemption to the code that allowed labels to
sue artists who failed to "fulfill" their contracts by
not delivering the contractually stated number of albums
over the seven-year term.

Labels were allowed to claim damages for each
undelivered album. The result of this exemption was to
effectively lock out recording artists from the
protections offered by the code, rendering the code moot
on any practical level for only one group of individuals
* the music makers. The labels insist that this
exemption is necessary to protect them against rogue
artists, on whom they spend millions of dollars building
and marketing a career, who leave the label before
fulfilling their contracts * typically, requiring the
delivery of seven albums in seven years. Labels also
claim artists fail to meet this obligation because they
are negligent, deliberately avoiding the contractual
obligation for their own purposes and gain. But let me
tell you what real life is like in the artist/label
relationship in 2001, where the labels shift executive
players faster than artists can update their phone books.
As Patti illustrated, the development and nurturing of
an artist is a very personal thing. When she signed with
Clive Davis, or with Quincy Jones, those were personal
relationships. That's the way this relationship should
work. But today, the only thing an artist can count on
is that everything will change, many times before the
ink is dry on the contract. Let's just look at the last
10 years in the life of the last remaining major U.S.
record company, the Warner Music Group family of labels,
which was once the most stable, artist-friendly label in
the business. In 1994, seven years after the
implementation of Subdivision (b) of the Labor Code,
Steve Ross stepped down as Chairman of Time/Warner and a
seismic shift took place in these companies. Label
stalwarts Mo Ostin and Lenny Waronker * the people who
cultivated some of our greatest talent, from Joni
Mitchell to Van Morrison, Neil Young to Van Halen * were
fired in a highly publicized move many considered the
end of the non-corporate record business. Since then,
it's been an executive revolving door. If memory serves
me right, Bob Morgado became CEO; HBO's Michael Fuchs
was brought in to head the music group. Fuchs was gone
within months. Morgado hired Atlantic's Doug Morris. He
then fired Doug Morris, who now heads Universal Music.

Danny Goldberg was hired as President of Warner Bros. He
was quickly fired and became president of Mercury
Records, and now heads Artemis Records. The Reprise and
Warner labels were split, headed then by Howie Klein and
Steven Baker, overseen by Russ Thyret. Phil Quartararo
was brought in from Virgin to replace Thyret. Roger Ames
is now head of the group, coming from Polygram, and
about a month ago, Tom Whalley became the new president
of Warner Bros, coming over from Interscope, a division
of the Universal Music Group. Jeff Ayeroff came in last
week as head of creative services; he was previously at
Virgin and A&M prior to that. Klein recently stepped
down from his post. And on it goes. We don't even have
time to go into the changes at the other Warner music
labels  Elektra and Atlantic. The personal relationship
an artist should have with the label as they make music
* arguably the most interpretive art form * seems to be
over. Obviously, we should end the exemption that keeps
them tied to these relationships  even the word
"relationships" doesn't seem appropriate here! The
artists are suffering. The message is clear: If you're
an artist today, you better have a way to get out of
these contracts if they're not working because you can
get lost in a maze of corporate shifts, leveraged
buyouts, IPOs, mergers and acquisitions, and upsizing
and downsizing. In closing, let's remember, the odds are
totally stacked against the artist. Contracts are
grossly one-sided. Virtually every expense is recoupable
to the artist * that is, every cost for recording and
marketing the record is applied against the artist's
royalty before he or she ever sees a penny, most of the
time years after a CD is released.

In fact, the labels, in their ongoing zeal to wrest
every semblance of power from the artist,
surreptitiously inserted a work-for-hire clause into the
1976 federal copyright law last year that took away
artists' one hope to regain their copyrights via the
35-year reversion. It took many voices before the U.S.
Congress in this same kind of hearing to help overturn
that incredibly wrong-headed law. Moreover, the labels
afford artists no health benefits, no 401k plans, no
* it's everyone for his- or herself. This
exemption discriminates against the recording artist.
While entertainers working in other related fields, such
as motion pictures and television, enjoy the protection
of labor code 2855, recording artists continue to work
under draconian subjugation, and we believe that
situation conflicts with their civil rights and the
sense of justice for which this body stands. You have
the opportunity, Mr. Chairman and members of the
Committee, to help re-balance the power between the
individual artists 
* all hard-working citizens of the
state of California 
* and the monolithic corporations
who use their clout and financial standing to ensure the
growth of their coffers, no matter at whose expense. We
respectfully urge you to take that opportunity by
repealing subdivision (b) in Labor Code section 2855. 

Thank you.

--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Message: 7
   Date: Thu, 06 Sep 2001 11:13:31 -0700
   From: Carol Kaye 
Subject: Re: Studio Musicians

Chris Montez was wonderful to work for - just saw him
recently too, he comes over to my house and we play some
jazz guitar things together, good musician...he's out on
that road all the time....

I don't know if that's Joe Sample or not on piano, can't
remember who he used, could have been Don Randi too, but
you might be right about Joe...he did a tremendous amount
of fine studio work in LA and is still going with his
jazz concerts. Below is a recent post I put on my Forum
to talk about the different ways in which studio
musicians were hired between pre-rock days and after our
group got going in the rock recording dates late 50s,
mainly 60s.

We all sort of phased out of recording for the various
groups, I was the first to quit altogether in late 1969
for 8 mos., wouldn't record for anyone, no films either
except for the Academy Awards show….and wouldn't take
any calls (when I went back) for any rock group or Motown
and certain others after that....just wanted to work the
record dates for people I wanted to work for and did a
ton of TV film things (Ironside, MASH, Mission Impossible,
Haw. 5-O, Kojak, Brady Bunch, etc. see credits on site)
as well as all the fun-great movie scores that I had been
doing in the 60s essentially, the 70s marked
the end of recording for those types of groups for us all,
as everyone sort of followed what I did in the 70s, just
sleep-deprived and probably burned out. Here's the post
FYI, hope this clarifies some things:  

 Carol Kaye

Since the motion picture industry had sound 1929-30s, to
the 60s rock and roll hot era, there's been a little bit
of difference in the way studio musicians functioned. It
was motion pictures (I believe) that started the idea of
"on-staff", each motion picture company having its
"on-staff" orchestra, a certain amount of set musicians
hired each time a film was scored with music -

I'm sure if you've seen some old old movie (1933 or so)
on TV, you've remarked at the huge orchestra that movie
had and the musicianship was quite remarkable...that was
all from sight reading music they never saw before, you
go to the studio and look through your music then you
start to record it and you better be accurate
....different conductors and composers/arrangers but
normally the same staff musicians on each film.

And I've heard some old tape recordings of staff live
radio musician orchestras too....I've never heard anyone
read so fast so accurately....really amazing musicianship
back then....they had acetate masters so there were no
"re-takes", you had to get it right on the first take    
Perry Botkin played an old tape of his Dad for me a few
months ago, Perry Botkin Sr. on guitar on one studio
orchestra broadcast, think it was CBS, and it was
something to hear, his Dad played some great guitar
single string (as we called soloing in those days) and
chordal improv too as well as read some fantastically
hard parts, boom, perfect no matter the fast tempos,
first take etc.

Musicians for movies and radio broadcasts proved
themselves with professionalism, being on-time, not
taking more than the proper am't of 5-minute breaks (1
per hour), having a good work ethic and attitude, being
able to read all kinds of music -- usually former big
band and symphonic musicians were the ones "on-staff".
This sort of set-up was adopted in those years by the
radio stations too -- it could have started at roughly
the same time, but I hear it was the movie studios that
started it....and they had constant on-staff radio
orchestras in NYC and Chicago also.

These same on-staff musicians were called "independent
free lancers" when working record dates - as record
companies themselves used anybody who worked movie score
work, and had no "on-staff" setup....any studio musician
was called to work record dates from the 30s on and
usually the big-bands (Dorsey, Goodman, Shaw, Ellington,
Miller, etc.) themselves had excellent musicians, many of
whom later became studio musicians, and didn't need the
"on-staff" musicians to do their music for them.

This system continued into the 50s but the 60s were
different. Rock and roll was started by rock musicians
themselves who weren't especially the best of musicians
but when they got them in the studios to record for
others, (they were not schooled nor experienced enough to
play and create music for others) it didn't work, they
needed more experienced studio musicians to record and
create parts on rock and roll....hence a "new" breed of
studio musician came into being....

There were a handful of natural talents like Glen
Campbell, Leon Russell etc. too and they made their mark,
but didn't last very many years in studio work actually
(some went on to be "stars") since they couldn't read
well when arrangements became the order of the day in
record dates eventually later in the 60s. They couldn't
work hardly any movie calls (& TV film) as reading
accuracy was essential.

The older "on-staff" movie (and now TV) musicians sort of
looked down on the new rock and roll music, which used
very few chords, and was pretty crude in their opinions
and maybe even making music in general "regress" a few
spoke out about it, while others didn't care...but the
younger new musicians, being very hungry wanted to do it
and didn't mind recording rock and roll and in fact, sort
of found the "grooves" to it and the
became fun to most of us for quite awhile.

Jazz didn't pay well, and you sure got tired of the road,
touring didn't pay that well either back in the 50s-69s,
except for the really big bands....still they got tired
of traveling enter the young bunch of musicians
who worked everywhere - in every recording studio (us).....

Rock was adopted sometimes into film soundtracks too in
the 60s especially (movie studios were suffering with
their old weighty and costly studio star system then and
TV was competing with movies in the 60s)...and so the old
system, which was very stable for decades, the "on-staff"
musician system became a lottery....with a new infusion
of some younger but capable studio musicians.....

but movie studios (which still includes a rare TV show
these days) still tend to hire the same musicians, like
the old days of being "on-staff" tho' there's literally
no "staff musicians" any more with the movie
studios....but they trust these same reliable musicians
to be there, play great, read great, and even create
where need be, and have a terrific professional
attitude....very important to movie studios where time is
very very costly.

Outsiders could be hired, yet they tended to use the same
musicians in the movie and the "new" TV music work, like
the older system which could be counted on to get the
finest musicians who would be on-time, wouldn't be drunks
or dopers, etc. but adding a few studio musicians who
were recording the new rock and roll (like drummers, some
keyboardists, and myself on Fender Bass, movie engineers
didn't know what a Fender bass was at first), while the
record dates used literally everyone
competent/experienced with proper studio gear, and fine
creativity they could get a hold of who could play all
styles of music and have a good open-mind (attitude) and
ability (creativeness) to play the new rock and roll as
well as read the necessary other movie cues, some tough
reading a lot of the time as well as creating your own
rock/funky parts on elec. bass.

A studio musician system that carried on to the time of
when the synthesizers started taking over....are still
dominant in today's studios, both the record and the film
studios....the keyboardists have done extremely well,
taking over (practically) the TV music for recording
(1-man studios everywhere in keyboardists' homes).

Guitarists cleaned up in the 60s and 70s but they are not
working anymore very much....string players and
orchestras occasionally are working on film scores and a
few record dates, but the new styles of music (hip hop,
synthesized sounds, etc) and technology have dictated
less work for the musician overall.

Nashville became very big in the beginning of the 80s (a
few producers like Jimmy Bowen had a lot to do with that)
and put a LOT of musicians to work as new pop-country
music sold very well but it too is on the decline from
what I hear now too as for hiring studio musicians. I
don't know what the answer is...

there still is some underground work (non-union
unfortunately) to record demos of people's songs. So
that's it in a nutshell, the history of studio musicians
and the evolvement of studio work.

I'm hoping there might be a way to resurrect a popular
sound of live musicians (instead of synthesized sounds)
for TV shows again, for more movies being scored here in
the USA (rather than the run-away movie scores, starting
in the late 70s, to Europe, Canada, England, etc.) to
provide more work for the excellent studio musicians here
in LA, but that remains to be seen.

The Federation/Union is trying. By working any non-union
date, anyone is insuring that they will never get a
pension, never get re-uses, and won't enjoy the benefits
of a unified musicians' Federation/Union that everyone
worked so hard for early that's another
consideration and something one should think
only get what you put into it all, so it's better to do a
record date through the Union. Union members are required
to do this although' there have some infractions.

Anyway, I hope this helps a little bit with public
understanding of studio musicians, and their history.

--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Message: 8
   Date: Sun, 09 Sep 2001 03:50:54 -0000
   From: Steveronic
Subject: MacAuley & MacLeod Release

Coming soon!!!!!!! MacAuley & MacLeod Double CD -
Buttercups and Rainbows - The Bubblegum Pop Of ............
>from Pye's vaults featuring Foundations, Flying Machine,
Jefferson and many more!!!!!!!!!

Release date I heard was the 24th of this month, the day
before my birthday!  I'll be praying the UK postal
service is working full throttle that week!  No doubt
it'll be the usual superb but over familiar songs and
unfortunately there will be little chance of hearing
'The Red Birds', and the wonderfully named 'Almond
Marzipan' or even Adam West and his, ahem, mighty
'Batman and Robin' as their records either weren't
released on Pye or didn't feature MacLeod as co-writer! 
Damn! Still I'm hoping it'll include lost 45's from
'Paper Dolls', 'Intentions', 'Tina Tott', etc.  Pretty
sure it'll be poptabulous !!!!!!!! Hope this info is of
interest to some Spectropoppers!


--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Message: 9
   Date: Sat, 08 Sep 2001 07:04:31 -0700 (PDT)
   From: Robert Tirado 
Subject: Ronnie Spector

just as I was leaving 34th st and 7th ave here in
Manhattan, NYC, there I see Ronnie with one of her
sons leaving a shoe store...she already knows me so I
went over and said Hi Ronnie and she replied hi baby,
and we went on our ways..she looks as beautiful as
ever and as sweet. I wish her well and success!

Robert Tirado

--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Message: 10
   Date: Sat, 08 Sep 2001 17:47:49 +0000
   From: "Donny Hampton" 

Most of the people on this list probably already know
about this CD and have it, but to all those who don't -
the most exquisite CD collection I've heard recently is
released by UK Sequel a couple of years ago.

I recently heard someone badmouth this compilation
because it doesn't contain any original versions.  Utter
bull!  Don't let anyone turn you against it before
you've listened for yourself.  This CD provides all the
proof you need that original versions are not necessary
to make a good songbook.  The British artists represented
(and they include The Rockin' Berries, Long John Baldry,
Jackie Trent and Petula Clark) honor Carole and Gerry
with good-to-excellent interpretations of some of their
best-known songs; and some cuts, most notably Glo
Macari's remake of "He Knows I Love Him Too Much" are
definitive.  Merseybeat and Brill Building pop make for a
stunning mix, and there are Spectorish production touches

If you buy this release, I guarantee it will become one
of the all-time favorites in your music library.  I want
Sequel to give the songs of Mann and Weil and Barry and
Greenwich the same treatment, and I'm actively urging
them to do so.

Don Charles

--------------------[ archived by Spectropop ]--------------------

Click here to go to The Spectropop Group

Spectropop text contents & copy; copyright Spectropop unless stated otherwise. All rights in and to the contents of these documents, including each element embodied therein, is subject to copyright protection under international copyright law. Any use, reuse, reproduction and/or adaptation without written permission of the owners is a violation of copyright law and is strictly prohibited. All rights reserved.